USDA’s Net Farm Income (NFI) forecast is an oft-cited number that many in the policy arena will use. It can be found in the media as well. The statistic is first reported in February with two more updates during the year. A final number is released in February the following year. USDA just released a NFI update. Let’s look at how good the estimates really are.
Three Illinois Ag Economists published an analysis of the accuracy of the USDA NFI estimate. The initial February estimate, 1975-2015, tends to under-estimate realized NFI by 8.7%. Just looking at the economist’s chart does not appear to give any indication why or under what conditions might cause USDA to under estimate NFI. The August revision is better at estimating net farm income, only 3.7% under-estimation. Simply counting the occurrence of under-estimation shows that 80% of the time USDA’s August estimate is below the final. USDA revises its NFI estimate in November but is off by 4.4%.
So what is the take away with this simple analysis? The February NFI estimate can off by a significant amount to the downside and has over-estimated NFI 9 of the last 40 years. The August estimate isn’t too far off since most of the growing season is past, planted acres are known and price information is better understood. There is still some production risk, but not much. So even though USDA is currently forecasting a rise in NFI, $11.2 billion or 12.6% year over year (YOY), there is a good probability it will go higher. On the negative side, USDA is projecting median and average farm income to be negative. If we go a little deeper into the USDA data, the negative income is most likely a result of residential farmers rather than farms as a principal occupation. Residential farms are projected to average -$634, Intermediate farms $6218 and Commercial farms $254,220. Definitions of the farm types are below. In 2017 it will take about 500 acres of irrigated corn, or 730 acres of soybeans, or about 1625 fat hogs or about 235 fed cattle to meet the $350,000 gross sales.
Source: Kuethe, Hubbs, Sanders, Farmdoc Daily, (7):156.
The definitions of the farm types are:
- Residence farms: Farms with less than $350,000 in gross cash farm income and where the principal operator is either retired or has a primary occupation other than farming.
- Intermediate farms: Farms with less than $350,000 in gross cash farm income and a principal operator whose primary occupation is farming.
- Commercial farms: Farms with $350,000 or more gross cash farm income and nonfamily farms.
Kuethe, T., T. Hubbs, and D. Sanders. “Interpreting USDA’s Net Farm Income Forecast.” farmdoc daily (7):156, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, August 25, 2017.
USDA. “Farm Household Income and Characteristics”, https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/farm-household-income-and-characteristics/farm-household-income-and-characteristics/#Farm%20Household%20Income%20Forecast, accessed 31 August, 2017.