Planning is a common activity for farm and ranch managers and operators. It includes crop rotations, when to wean, when to sell crops or calves and when to take an LDP. All of those activities inevitably lead to cash and income. “Cash Flow Statements”can be used to plan an agricultural business’ need for borrowing, when to make payments for various expenses or when to make crop and calf sales.
A statement of cash flows summarizes cash inflows and outflows for a specific time period. It can be used to project, pro forma, future cash flows or to summarize past cash flows. Cash inflows include product sales or sales of capital items but also borrowing and investing. Cash outflows include loan payments, supplier payments, machinery lease payments, land rent payments, taxes and family living draw. The size of all these matter but so do the timing of the cash flows. A proforma cash flow statement allows the farm and ranch manager to set up lines of credit, plan crop sales, plan vacations, project tax payments and even which crops to plant. The statement of cash flows is usually done either quarterly or monthly.
Proforma cash flows can be prepared either by:
- use last years actual cash flows to project the coming year’s cash flows.
- project the coming year’s cash flows from each farm enterprise with details about probable prices, yields, expenses, family living draw, property taxes, income and social security taxes.
The first method is quicker but unless it is adjusted for crop price and yield variation, changes in input costs, changes to debt servicing, likely changes to tax liability and changes to family living it may be too far off the mark. Many farmers already calculate costs and returns for their crops or calves. These are called enterprise budgets and can be used to build a cash flow using the second method. This second method also allows the user to mix enterprises as needed to increase profitability and increase positive cash flow.
Many tools are available to help with cash flow development. Nebraska Extension will soon publish the “2017 Crop Budgets” at http://cropwatch.unl.edu/budgets. Right now the 2016 budgets are up. Iowa State University Extension has an article further explaining cash flow budgeting and two Excel spreadsheets to help with the process at http://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/wholefarm/html/c3-14.html. Oklahoma State University has a paper form for cash flow budgeting, http://agecon.okstate.edu/annie/files/F-751%20Cash%20Flow.pdf. The University of Minnesota has an online workshop about cash flow at http://ifsam.cffm.umn.edu/StatementCashFlows/Default.aspx?SectionID=5 to help you further understand cash flow planning. Nebraska Extension also has a web video that helps explain Cash Flow Planning at https://vimeo.com/188871642.